Example - Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Systems


This example is of text used to describe the concept of operation of a Pressurised Water Reactor. The description uses a different style to a specification, where an attempt is made to make each statement independent. The description is covering both the separate objects, and their interdependence. It is also less formal, using phrases like "...it is so efficient...". An advantage is that the sentences are relatively short, being intended for a non-technical audience.


Clause as Subject


A clause will be given, and the relation described in the clause used as the subject for another clause through a relative pronoun, as


Cool water removes excess heat from the steam, which allows the steam to condense.


Read and Remember


The steam formed in the steam generator is transferred ...


...after the steam forming process


...it starts to boil and form steam


We read about steam that is formed, so when we encounter "the steam forming process", we know it is the process of forming steam, not the steam (that is) forming a process.




The steam formed in the steam generator is transferred to the main turbine generator, where it is converted into electricity.


The energy in the steam is converted into electricity, not the steam.


...systems must be designed ... to remove the decay from the core


It is "decay heat" that is removed, not "decay".


Specifying Ranges


There is a wide variety of ways of specifying ranges of units.


...internal diameters of 156 to 159 inches...

... varies from almost 700 to more than 900 megawatts.

...varies from less than 500 to more than 1200 megawatts.

...is less than 0.25 pounds.

...about six times more space...

...such as small to intermediate size primary breaks.


The last example is using adjectives from a spectrum, rather than numeric values.

Prepositional Phrase as Subject


On the outside of the core barrel will be irradiation specimen holders ...


TransParticipial Verb


The upper internals package prevents the core from trying to move...


The verb form goes with negative verbs - prevented, kept from. The "from" is optional.


Participial Verb


The coolant flows all around and through the fuel assemblies, removing the heat produced by the fission process.


The first clause acts as the subject of the present participle. The effect is similar to the use of a relative pronoun preceded by a comma.


Creating a Clausal Verb


...process of moisture removal is so efficient at removing the water that...


Putting "so" before the adjective allows a clause as object.

Creating a Clausal Noun


...to cool the plant down to a low enough temperature that personnel can perform...


"Enough" can create a clausal or infinitive noun.


...which increases the pressure of the water high enough to enter...

Measure of an Object


...for every 100 pounds of steam that exits...


The measure and the object are gathered into one object using a collocation.

Providing a Definition


This is done by heating the steam above the boiling point, or superheating.


"by heating the steam above the boiling point" describes the process of superheating.

Post Determiner


The three major vendors of pressurized water reactors all have similar systems...

...is that the vendors all call the systems...


Original document